In the past few weeks, I reviewed USB drive performance on the Raspberry Pi 4, and the importance of UASP support for USB drive performance.
Both posts generated great discussion, and there were three things I wanted to cover in this follow-up, namely:

  1. Which drives support UASP
  2. Real-world performance benchmarks
  3. TRIM support

For reference, here are all the products I’m testing in this post (product links are to their Amazon product page, starting from top middle, clockwise):
Video Version
There is also a video version of this blog post: view video on YouTube.
UASP support
First, in the last post, I completely forgot to discuss which of the USB drives I tested supported UASP, and which ones didn’t.
For a refresher, UASP lets the Raspberry Pi communicate with the drive using the SCSI protocol, which is up to twice as fast for file copies and disk performance as the older ‘USB mass storage’ protocol.
You can check if your own drive supports UASP with the command lsusb -t. If the output shows ‘uas’, it supports it out of the box. If it shows ‘usb-storage’, it doesn’t.
So here’s a quick graph showing which drives support UASP.

UASP Device
Inatech enclosure with Kingston 120GB SSD
TDBT M.2 enclosure with XPG SX6000 128GB NVMe
Corsair Flash Voyager GTX 128GB
Arcanite 128GB USB 3.1 flash drive
SanDisk Ultra Flair 16GB USB 3.0 flash drive
SanDisk Ultra Fit 128GB USB 3.0 flash drive
Samsung Evo+ 32GB microSD

It looks like all the fastest drives I benchmarked support it, while all the slowest ones don’t. No huge surprise there; the faster drives use better chipsets that are built for SSD performance.
The Arcanite is an outlier, though. It doesn’t support UASP, but it does perform very well for its price. And it sometimes behaves a little like an SSDI’ll talk about that in a bit.
For the second thing I wanted to cover, I was prompted by none other than Gordon Hollingworth, the Director of Engineering at Raspberry Pi, in his Twitter post. He said:
What would be really interesting is how the different SD card, usb flash and nvme storage compare in terms of booting time and time to start a web page from the command line…
— Gordon Hollingworth (@gsholling) August 7, 2020
First, I’ll test boot time performance.
Boot Performance
The most important thing when measuring boot time is to find a way to compare different devices using an objective measure. That is, you don’t want to sit around with a stopwatch and try to time ‘from plug-in to desktop appearing’ boot times. That could be helpful sometimes, but it’s not very objective.
Instead, I use a built-in tool in Raspberry Pi OS, called systemd-analyze. It’s a tool that helps you analyze the system manager, and by default, if you just run that command, it will output the boot time. How easy is that?!
So I did that, three times for each drive, and averaged the results:
All the drives performed pretty well, though the non-UASP drives did tend to be slower, with the strange exception of the SanDisk Ultra Flair, which punched above its weight class. The slowest by far was the SanDisk Ultra Fit, which I mentioned in the previous post has a tendency to overheat and slow way down.
But there are two important caveats to these boot time numbers:
First, I booted with the August 2020 version of Rasbperry Pi OS, and followed the directions in this blog post to configure the USB drive to be able to boot the Pi.
Second, it seems like the Pi already optimized its boot performance really well. The first boot was always a bit slower, but subsequent boots took around 15-17 seconds, on all the USB drives I tested.
The biggest difference was that first boot was much faster on the faster SSDs and NVMe drive, and a bit slower on the cheap flash drives and the microSD card.
Browser launch time
The other thing Gordon mentioned in his tweet was testing the web browser launch time from the command line.
It actually took a bit of doing, figuring out a way to launch Chromium from the command line, load a web page, and then quit it, and get an accurate time measurement of the process. Just using chromium-browser [URL here] didn’t cut it, because that launched the browser, and the process wouldn’t exit until I manually quit the browser.
After asking on Twitter about what others might do, I found a neat Node.js utility called ‘puppeteer’, which I could use to do it all automatically, and then I used the time utility in Linux to benchmark the process three times for each drive. I described how I did this benchmark in detail in this post: Testing how long it takes Chromium to open, load a web page, and quit on Debian.
Here are the results:
The difference really isn’t that big. Definitely not as big as I thought it would be. The faster drives still open Chromium a tiny bit fasterespecially on first launchbut only a tiny bit!
I tested all of these Pis over a VNC connection, with the resolution set in raspi-config to 1280×720. And just like the boot times, the first launch of the browser after a reboot would take a bit longer than the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or 5th launches.
I think this just means the caching mechanisms in Linux are good at normalizing performance for even very slow boot volumes, as long as you have enough system memory.
Once booted for the second time and after quitting and restarting Chrome, the difference in common UI tasks between the slowest drive and the NVMe drive was almost imperceptible.
There are some things, especially when you’re doing upgrades, installing software, writing files, or working on large projects (like Drupal websites I maintain) where the difference is more apparent.
To test that, I installed php7.3-cli on each of the drives, and checked how long that took:
And… as with the other performance tests, this one is not the most consistent. I ran it a couple times on some of the drives, re-flashing the entire drive between runs, and the standard deviationthe variance between runswas usually around 20%, so take these results with a grain of salt.
Generally speaking, the faster drives did do better, but it was hard to get exact numbers when benchmarking real-world workloads.
TRIM support
So finally, in a Hacker News thread, user Legogris asked about TRIM, saying:
Are you aware if the GTX and Arcanite support TRIM? That definitely makes a difference when considering OS storage.
And why would Legogris be interested in TRIM support? Well, the short answer is with SSDs, when little bits of data are deleted, and new data needs to be written to where those old deleted bits were, the drive can slow down and also do more work than it should have to.
This is a really simple answer, but basically think of it like ‘automatic defragmentation’ for an SSD. I don’t know if you’ve ever had the honor of sitting in front of an old Windows computer watching it defragment your 80 MB IDE drive for hours on end, but it’s kind of like that, at warp speed. TRIM doesn’t do defragmentation, technically, but it’s similar in that it lets your SSD perform its best through some automatic cleanup processes.
The hard thing is, you have to have TRIM support in both your operating systemin our case, Raspberry Pi OS (which does support TRIM)and in the drive controller’s firmware.
There are a few ways to check for TRIM support, like running the fstrim command:
sudo fstrim -v /
If it says the discard operation is not supported, then TRIM isn’t currently working for your drive.
You can also run the lsblk command:
lsblk -D
If the DISC-MAX value is 0B, then, again, TRIM isn’t currently working for your drive.
Many adapters will work with TRIM after you follow a special process to change their ‘provisioning mode’.
I have a separate blog post with details on how to enable TRIM support if your firmware supports it but it’s not enabled by default: Enabling TRIM on an external SSD on a Raspberry Pi.
Some drive controllers may also need a firmware update to enable TRIM support, so check on your drive manufacturer’s website.
Here are the results for all the drives I tested:

Device TRIM OOTB TRIM support in Firmware
Inatech enclosure with Kingston 120GB SSD
TDBT M.2 enclosure with XPG SX6000 128GB NVMe
Corsair Flash Voyager GTX 128GB
Arcanite 128GB USB 3.1 flash drive
SanDisk Ultra Flair 16GB USB 3.0 flash drive
SanDisk Ultra Fit 128GB USB 3.0 flash drive
Samsung Evo+ 32GB microSD

Surprisingly, the Inatech enclosure didn’t seem to have any TRIM support, while the TDBT NVMe enclosure and the Corsair did.
Also, and this is something I never thought aboutthe Raspberry Pi actually supports TRIM out of the box for internal microSD cards!
But the most alarming result is that the Arcanite firmware indicated TRIM support, but when I followed the process to change the provisioning mode and ran fstrim, the drive failed spectacularly, and now I can’t even mount or initialize the thing on any computer!
So… the Arcanite firmware may be from an SSD, but the flash memory itself seemed to not take well to the fstrim command. Either that, or I had one defective unit!
In the end, I found there are a lot of different traits, positive and negative, on all the drives I tested. If you just need a drive to store large files, I still think the Arcanite is the best overall value, even though it doesn’t support UASP, and it kind of explodes if you try enabling TRIM.
And if you’re after raw performance, an NVMe inside an enclosure is going to give the best bang for your buck, as well asat least in the case of the TDBT enclosure I testedfull TRIM and UASP support.
In the end, if you have any USB 3.0 drive, outside of cheap flash drives, it’s probably going to perform as well as or better than a microSD card in a Raspberry Pi 4.